Showing posts with label pottery. Show all posts
Showing posts with label pottery. Show all posts

12/24/2012

Sencha tea

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Sencha 煎茶 

MAIN ENTRY
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Sencha (煎茶) is a Japanese green tea, specifically one made without grinding the tea leaves. The word "sencha" means "decocted tea," referring to the method that the tea beverage is made from the dried tea leaves. This is as opposed, for example, to matcha (抹茶), powdered Japanese green tea, in which case the green tea powder is mixed with hot water and therefore the leaf itself is included in the beverage.



Among the types of Japanese green tea prepared by decoction, "sencha" is distinguished from such specific types as gyokuro and bancha. It is the most popular tea in Japan, and represents about 80 percent of the tea produced in Japan

Depending upon the temperature of the water in which it is decocted, the flavor will be different, and this also is the appeal of sencha. With relatively not too hot water, it is relatively mellow; with hot water, it is more astringent. Unground tea was brought from China after matcha (抹茶, powdered green tea). Some varieties expand when steeped to resemble leaf vegetable greens in smell, appearance, and taste.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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made by itibei

朱泥ダルマ彫煎茶 Cup for sencha
made from shudei 朱泥 red clay from China


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- Reference - Shudei Pottery -
a lot is made in Kyushu, Tokoname . . .


CLICK for more samples !


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source : yudachigama

From the kiln Yudachigama 夕立窯.

This cup can "korokoro" tumble around like Daruma, getting up eight times.


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not related to sencha, however some cups:


source : gotheborg.com

Antique Chinese and Japanese Porcelain Collector's
Jan-Erik Nilsson Gothenburg, Sweden
source : gotheborg.com


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- - - 茶 Tea and Daruma - - -  

. Baisaoo, Baisaō 売茶翁 Baisao, "Old Tea Seller"
賣茶翁 (ばいさおう) / 高遊外 Ko Yugai (1675 – 1763) .

The veneration of Baisao during and after his lifetime helped to popularize sencha tea and led to the creation of the sencha tea ceremony.

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2/29/2012

Karatsu Pottery

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Karatsuyaki 唐津焼  Karatsu Pottery


source : tarurunoheya.bangofan.com
11代中里天祐 作 の「達磨」 DARUMA
Daruma from Nakazato Tenyuu


中里太郎右衛門陶房 Nakazato Taroemon


quote
Visiting the Nakazato Kiln
Unbroken lineage of fourteen generations


Karatsu is one of Japan's best-loved pottery styles. Like other styles, it derives its name from the city it's located in. Karatsu, meaning "China Port," is located in Saga Prefecture on the island of Kyushu. Karatsu pottery traces its roots back to the 15th century, but it is generally agreed that it matured in the latter half of the 16th century.

This is due to the influx of Korean potters brought back by Lord Hideyoshi in what is often called the "pottery wars." Tea was favored among the lords at that time, with a Karatsu chawan being a most desired style, two other cherished styles being Raku and Hagi. The only family dating back to that time still in the Karatsu pottery world is the famous Nakazato family. They have an unbroken lineage of fourteen generations and are one reason of the continued success of the Karatsu style.

Just a short walk from Karatsu station is the studio-museum-gift shop of the head of the Nakazato family -- he is always given the family potting name of Taroemon (Ta-row-eh-moan). Today we have Nakazato Taroemon XlV (formally known as Tadahiro), who took the Taroemon name on March 4, 2002. His father is now known as Houan.
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The Nakazato Taroemon Compound
The compound has a very traditional gateway and as soon as one passes through it a large Daruma is there to greet you.

Read more HERE

Robert Yellin
source : www.e-yakimono.net


- Yellin - more about Karatsu pottery


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唐津焼の達磨
about 80 cm high, the eyes protruding.
with a mark からつ
and a square mark 陶喰坊

source : uniqra hatena

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I have a very similar statue in my collection.




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. . . CLICK here for Photos !


quote
A variety of styles of Karatsu ware exist.

Picture Karatsu (絵唐津, Ekaratsu)
Various images (flowers, plants, birds, mythological creatures, etc.) are painted onto the piece using an iron-based underglaze, then the piece is fired with a semitransparent gray glaze which allows the underglaze to show. This style is known for its earthy color and simple design.

Korean Karatsu (朝鮮唐津, Chōsen Karatsu)
This traditional style was introduced by one or more potters brought from the Joseon Dynasty during the Japanese invasions of Korea. It features a black glaze placed under a white glaze which has been fired with straw. The two glazes run together and give a feeling of opposites.
Okugōrai (奥高麗)

Mottled Karatsu (斑唐津, Madara Karatsu)
Mishima Karatsu (三島唐津)
Powder Karatsu (粉引唐津, Kobiki Karatsu)
Seto Karatsu (瀬戸唐津)
Blue Karatsu (青唐津, Aokaratsu)
Yellow Karatsu (黄唐津, Kikaratsu)
Carved Karatsu (彫唐津, Hori Karatsu)

Brushed Karatsu (刷毛目唐津, Hakeme Karatsu)
Combed Karatsu (櫛目唐津, Kushime Karatsu)
Snake Karatsu (蛇蝎唐津, Jakatsu Karatsu)
Two-color Karatsu (二彩唐津 Nisai Karatsu)
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


- Reference -


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. Yakimono 焼物 Daruma in and on pottery .


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1/23/2010

Hachi small pot

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Small pot (hachi)

Here is a sample from Kyoyaki pottery 京焼.
signed 平安春峯造

It is a small pot to serve sweets for the tea ceremony.
About 8,5 cm high and 17 in diameter.








Detail of the face


Photos from my friend Ishino.



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hachi はち【鉢】 bowls of all kinds

asabachi 浅鉢 shallow bowl. flache Schale
chawan 茶碗 ricebowl. lit. "tea cup". Reisschale, Schüssel
chuubachi 中鉢 bowl of middle size
daenbachi, daen hachi 楕円鉢 oblong bowl
daibachi 大鉢 big bowl. grosse Schale
donburi どんぶり【丼】 bowl, usually with a lid of the same pattern. Donburi-Schüssel
donabe 土鍋 earthware pot. irdener Kochtopf

futatsuki wan 蓋付き碗 bowl with a lid (often for chawan mushi)
fukabachi 深鉢 deep bowl. tiefe Schale
guratan sarabachi グラタン皿鉢 bowl for gratin (usually heat-proof)
kakubachi 角鉢 square bowl. viereckige Schale
katakuchi bachi 片口鉢 bowl with a spout on one side. Schale mit Ausguss an einer Seite
kobachi 小鉢 small bowl. kleine Schale

mamebachi 豆鉢 very small bowl
meshiwan めしわん【飯椀/飯碗】 bowl for rice. Reisschale
sankaku asabachi 三角浅鉢 shallow bowl with three corners

tonsui とんすい small bowl with a handle (to take your own portions from a larger pot)
..... tetsuke tonsui 手付とんすい with a handle. Portionsschale.
It often comes with a small saucer

. WASHOKU
UTSUWA うつわ【器】, vessel or dish
 






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kigo for all summer



suzu no hachi 錫の鉢 (すずのはち) small pot of tin
suzu no sara 錫の皿(すずのさら)plate of tin

Tin is close to silver, and its shining surface gives the food in summer a cool appearance. With some dewdrops on the plate it is even more refreshing.



鮮膾や露泛べたる錫の鉢
sennamasu ya tsuyu ukibetaru suzu no hachi

fresh namasu fish -
dewdrops hover over
the tin pot


Aoki Getto 青木月斗



namasu is a dish of finely chopped raw fish and vegetables soaked in vinegar.

. WASHOKU
なますkind of vinegar dressing

and related KIGO


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. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


皿鉢もほのかに闇の宵涼み
sarabachi mo honoka no yami no yoi suzumi / sara hachi

dishes and bowls
shimmer so faintly
in the cool darkness


Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉, 1694 summer 元禄7年夏

After the meal he was sitting on the veranda and observed how the white dishes were faintly still visible in the darkness. It is just a normal scene of daily life, but near his death, he seemed to enjoy just to be there.


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asagiwan 浅葱椀 "blue laquer bowl"
in the translations of Shirane


this is almost the color of Japanese negi 葱 long green onion leaves .

The woooden bowls are covered with black laquer and then paintings in light yellow 浅黄椀 or in red and white auspicious colors of flowers and birds are applied


海苔汁の手際見せけり浅黄椀
nori jiru no tegiwa mise keri asagi wan

he is so skillfull
at serving seaweed soup -
in this laquer bowl



More haiku by Basho about
. Nori 海苔 laver seaweed .


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梅が香や客の鼻には浅黄わん
ume ga ka ya kyaku no hana ni wa asagiwan

scent of plum blossoms -
beneath the guest's nose
a blue laquer bowl


Kyoroku 許六

source : Haruo Shirane


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. sara 皿 Plates with Daruma Design .


. mamezara 豆皿 small plates "beans size" .
with Daruma Design


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2/27/2006

Kutaniyaki Pottery

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. Ishikawa Folk Art - 石川県 .
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Kutaniyaki 九谷焼 Kutani Pottery, Kutani ware  


Daruma as incense holder

I have written various articles about this type of pottery.

Kutani ware is pottery for everyday life and for the tea ceremony, made in the Kaga Province (now Ishikawa Prefecture). The tradition started in the late 17th century. The Old Kutani (kokutani 古九谷) ware has a dark restrained overglaze enamel and dishes and bowls were most common. Other colors are a dull white glaze or a shiny indigo tinge to a dark blue. The characteristic colors are dark yellow and green.
Kutani ware is quite colorful and the designs go back to Chinese porcelains. The Yoshidaya Kiln (吉田家窯1823 - 31) revived the tradition of Old Kutani.


Look at these two, one from pottery, the dark one from bronze.



They are almost identical, and for good reason.
First I got the green one, and about a year later, the bronze one.
Side by side, they seem like twins.
The pottery one was made by a Kutani potter, who's brother was a maker for temple bells. So one day he lent the form to his brother and a few bronze Daruma were made.
One of them had found its twin here in my Daruma museum !

This is one of the joys of a collector!


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China-making in Kutani dates back around 340 years to the middle of the 17th century. As part of a policy to encourage local industry, a kiln to make colored porcelain was established at Kutani village, when high-quality china clay was discovered there. Potters were brought from Hizen (in present-day Saga Prefecture), which was known at the time as a center of porcelain production. This was the beginning of the local manufacture of colored china.

The type of pottery was named Kutaniyaki after the village where it began. It had a distinctive style that involved the plentiful use of Kutani gosai, or the five hues of Kutani, including deep blue, purple, yellow, green, and red, which were used to cover the entire surface with colored decoration. Themes included birds and flowers, landscape motifs, and geometrical patterns.

In 1710, however, after half a century of continuous production, the kiln was suddenly closed. People have suggested a number of reasons, but nobody really knows why it was closed down. Pottery from this early period is known as Old Kutani, and it forms a separate category from Kutani ware of later years produced after the industry was revived in the 19th century. In the early 19th century, the local ruling clan, which was enjoying power and influence, revived China-making in Kutani. After this, a number of potters and master craftsmen grew up in the area. Among them, Shoza Kutani did much to establish the reputation of Kutani ware in the second half of the 19th century.
http://web-japan.org/atlas/crafts/cra13.html


. . . CLICK here for Photos !



Check the articles by Robert Yellin :
source : e-Yakimono.net

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source : japanesepotterymarks.info...

Piggy Bank Daruma 九谷焼 貯金箱 だるま





Piggy Bank Manekineko 九谷焼 招き猫

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Some of my samples

Yawning Daruma
Kutani figure of Daruma dating from late Meiji period


Moskitoes and Daruma, on Kutani Pottery


My Photo Gallery of Kutani Daruma

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Here is a piece from my Daruma Museum







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Quoted from
SANAI, FINE ART & JAPANESE ANTIQUES
Edward Kawanabe, Texas, USA




The size of Daruma: 7 1/" High x 3" Dia.
The glazing Daruma has lavender purple which is the color of Kutani used often. I found this piece at Kutani area on my last trip. Daruma has merciful expression.
Dating from late Edo, 1860-70.

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source : darumakaiun.seesaa.net



source : tenant.depart.


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Torizara Plates with the typical Daruma

from the Showa period


Photos from my friend Ishino

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From 九谷焼窯元 陶匠大雅 
石川県加賀市中代町ホ1-1 Taiga-Do

cup


mug with handle




source : 陶匠大雅 
http://www.kutani-taigadou.jp/

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H A I K U

陶芸の文化を今に九谷焼
toogei no bunka o ima ni Kutaniyaki

continuing the culture
of great pottery -
Kutani pottery


Uehara Ichiro 上原一郎

MORE
source : hot-ishikawa.jp/senryu-haiku



source : flimart.com
Click for more photos of Kutani pottery !


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- #kutaniyaki #kutani -
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2/19/2006

Plates

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sara 皿 Plates with Daruma Design

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Imari Plates

An interesting blue and white Imari plate 3 pc set decorated with Daruma , from early 20 century.
The design is very unique. Very fine brushwork on Daruma's expression. Backside has 3 bats design.
Measures 5 inch diameter.
source : www.japanese-closet.com









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Kutani Pottery 九谷焼

Kaburak store, Kanazawa
source : kaburaki.jp/store

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source : www.dodicitile.com


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source : www.chunichi-culture.jp

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CLICK for enlargement !

Daruma plate with Shinto motives !

- source : Jennifer on facebook

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CLICK for more Daruma plates !


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. hachi はち【鉢】 bowls of all kinds .
with hokku by Matsuo Basho

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11/10/2005

Suiteki and Gennai

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Suiteki, Water Dripper 水滴


My Collection


Introduction to Japanese Calligraphy

The knowledge of calligraphy is an important step in the understanding of Japanese culture. Calligraphy is not merely an exercise in good handwriting, but rather the foremost art form of the Orient. It is the combination of the skill and imagination of the person who has studied intensely the combinations available using only lines. In the West, calligraphy was intended to suppress individuality and produce a uniform style. Japanese calligraphy (sho 書) attempts to bring words to life, and endow them with character. Styles are highly individualistic, differing from person to person. Japanese calligraphy presents a problem for westerners trying to understand it; the work is completed in a matter of seconds so the uninitiated cannot really appreciate the degree of difficulty involved. However, bear in mind that the characters must be written only once. There is no altering, touching up, or adding to them afterwards.

Various types of Chinese-character scripts, or shotai, representing the historical development of writing in China, are practiced, such as tensho or archaic script, and Reisho or clerical script. More common is kaisho or block-style script, perhaps the most popular style, since the characters are easily recognizable. Gyoosho or running-style script is created by a faster movement of the brush and some consequent abbreviation of the character. Soosho or grass-writing is a true cursive style that abbreviates and links parts of a character, resulting in fluid and curvilinear writing.
More
http://metrotel.co.uk/calligraphy/intro1.html



Water Droppers (Suiteki 水滴)
Now let us take a closer look at the water droppers. They come in many forms and shapes, usually made from ceramics or metal.

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Suiteki, Water Dripper from Imari 伊万里の水滴
http://blog.livedoor.jp/gabigreve2000/archives/22555331.html




Suiteki Water Dripper 水滴 like Daruma





. . . CLICK here for Photos of many more samples !


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Pottery from Tokoname 常滑焼
5.5 cm high, 6.3 cm diameter


Photo from my friend Ishino.


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From Pottery





Photos from my friend Ishino.

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Princess Daruma
from Ofuke-Yaki pottery

御深井姫だる

Diameter about 5,5 cm


Photos from my friend Ishino.

Ofuke-yaki 御深井焼 is from an old kiln of Nagoya, adjacent to the castle.
(おふけ)

quote
In the year 15 of Keicho Era (1610), feudal lord of Owari Tokugawa clan, Mr. Yoshinao Tokugawa (Mr. Ieyasu Tokugawa's child) called to Akazu village (present Akazu, Seto City) for revival of Akazu kiln, the potter who had come out to other districts to avoid war.
In the year 2 of Genwa Era (1616), Yoshinao Tokugawa invited into Nagoya Castle, two
potters in Akazu village, Nihei and Tousaburo, to build a kiln at "Ofuke-maru" (a place inside the castle) for firing "Oniwa-yaki"earthenware. Later, Tahei, potter in Akazu joined and the three potters were called the big three or "Okamaya".

Akazuware have been fired in same way as ancient technology and technique. This is because the above big three "Okamaya" were going to Nagoya Castle to fire "Oniwa-yaki" until "Oniwa-yaki" had been abolished at a law of replacing "Han" (feudal domain) with "Ken" (Prefecture) in Meiji Era. This should reflect support from great Tokugawa Clan. Different from "Oniwa-yaki", "Ofuke-yaki" earthenware was instructed by Mr. Chin Gen Pin (naturalized Japanese from China). "Ofuke-yaki" was fired wtih light blue ash glaze and with decoration manner called "Annan-Gosue".
This light blue ash glaze is called "Ofuke-yu" considred to be most difficult one of the glazes in Akazuware.
© setodrgn, 2002

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Suiteki - Water Dropper, Hiraga Gennai and Daruma
水滴,平賀源内と達磨




Let me introduce you to one of my favorite free spirits of the Edo period.
Meet Hiraga Gennai (1728 - 80), a famous naturalist, experimentator, inventor and writer.

He was born in the Takamatsu domain as the son of a low-ranking samurai, moved to Nagasaki to study herbal medicine and in 1757 went to Edo to continue his studies and to write humorous books. He experimented with many natural substances, trying to make cloth of asbestos, thermometers and Dutch-style pottery. Soon he made his own style, Gennai-yaki. His activities included surveys for ore deposits, wool manufacturing and Western oil painting with other Akita painters. He also experimented with electricity and tried his hand at many inventions.

In his later years he showed signs of psychological deterioration and died in prison after he killed one of his disciples in a fit of madness in 1779.
He is still well known today as a searching spirit and great experimentor and researcher of nature.

The Gennai kiln is believed to have opened in the mid Edo period (Hoeki Era, 1753-63) in Kagawa prefecture. The kiln produced a lightweight pottery in a style of South Chinese wares, and is best known for low relief plates depicting maps of Japan in typical Gennai glazing of yellow, brown and green.

From his bout with pottery we have this small water dropper in the form of a reclining Daruma in three colors 三彩達磨. This or similar forms of a Daruma leaning back are still used today in Kutani, as you can see from the piece of my collection.




It is customary to eat broiled eel on the day of the ox in summer (doyoo no ushi no hi, sometime in late July). This is because eel (unagi) is nutritious and rich in vitamin A, and provides strength and vitality to fight against the extremely hot and humid summer of Japan. The man who invented this well-loved custom is the famous scientist of the late Edo period, Hiraga Gennai.
. . . Doyoo 土用 Dog Days and eating eel


Here is a short report about Gennai'a experiments with electricity, a subject that fascinated him greatly.

Elekiter (Photograph/Appointed as an important cultural asset in 1997)
Hiraga Gennai witnessed the demonstration of "Elekiter" on his second visit to Nagasaki in 1770 and he made up his mind to reproduce it. The mechanism that induces static electricity by rotating a handle in the side of a box is reported to have obtained a great popularity as "A Wonderful Thing" in Edo at that time.



Inbanuma Kantaku 印旛沼干拓 Inba-Numa land reclamation
Hiraga Gennai was involved in the project of drying out the swamp at Inbanuma along the river Tonegawa 利根川 for land reclamation.

Legend knows that Gennai died because of a curse of the Demon of the Swamp.

Lake Inbanuma was created by the natural damming of a small valley in the Shimosa Plateau, Chiba, and originally covered 21.3 square kilometres. After land reclamation projects, similar to those carried out on the swamp Teganuma, it now covers 13.1 square kilometres.

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Hiraga Gennai, the spirit of Tokugawa genius
Receiving orders from clans (han) of the Tokugawa Era, Hiraga Gennai, an early exponent of so-called Dutch learning (rangaku) during the Tokugawa Period, created fireproof coats. He also produced "Electriciteit" (electricity) by applying ideas imported from Holland to create a friction generator for medical purposes. Hiraga's ingenious creativity still inspires us today. Using the powers of imagination to create new things --- the spirit of Hiraga Gennai lives on at Hiraga Machinery Mfg. Co., Ltd.
http://www.hiraga.co.jp/eng/


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The latest development - November 2015

The financial supporter of Gennai was (most probably) the lord of Takamatsu domaine,
Matsudaira Yoritaka 松平頼恭 (1711 - 71).

Other sourced point to his relationship with the Governor in Edo
. Tanuma Okitsugu 田沼意次 (1719 - 1788) .

Yoritaka had an interest in science himself:
Illustrated book of fish and aquatic animals
compiled by Matsudaira Yoritaka, the Lord of Takamatsu in 18th century Japan.

Matsudaira Yoritaka noticed Gennai's abilities in cultivating ginseng — an activity in which Lord Yoritaka enthusiastically participated . . .
- further reference -


Japan: The Dutch Experience
By Grant Kohn Goodman
- source : books.google.co.jp -


Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900
By Haruo Shirane
- source : books.google.co.jp -

It seems he did not really "invent" most of the items related with his studies, but got them from the Dutch in Nagasaki or read about them in European books and repaired things as best as he could.
Nihon no Da Vinci 日本のダ・ヴィンチ

江戸時代中期、巷ではある男の発明が話題をさらっていた・・・
平賀源内。日本を代表する発明家であり、一般的にエレキテルを発明した事で知られ、
『日本のダ・ヴィンチ』とも呼ばれる。
しかし、その素顔は意外と知られていない・・・

高松藩御蔵番・白石茂左衛門の三男として生まれ、本草学(薬学)を学ぶ。
その知識が買われ、長崎へ遊学。
そこで日本を圧倒する海外の科学技術を目の当たりにした源内は、
研究の自由を求め高松藩を脱藩。
浪人となった彼は蘭学を学ぶ為江戸へと向かうのだった・・・。

江戸での活躍、蘭学、数々の発明、生涯の親友・杉田玄白との出会い・・・
そんな源内が発明した品々にある疑惑が浮かび上がってきた!

平賀源内は“発明家”ではなかった!?

一介の浪人に過ぎない源内が、なぜ研究に没頭できたのか?
明らかになる資金源と彼を動かしていた影の人物の存在。
そして源内には数々の奇行が?現代医学で行動を分析!
すると意外な事実が・
- source : www.bs4.jp/hsi - Ainosuke -

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- Books by Hiraga Gennai -

Rootless Weeds (根無し草 Nenashigusa) 1763
In Gennai's Rootless Weeds, which gives a comic twist to this incident, Enma, the king of hell, falls in love with a picture of Segawa Kikunojo ... The Dragon God, who has been asked by Enma to find Kikunojō, a kappa (water spirit) takes the shape of a young samurai ...

- source : Haruo Shirane google books -

A Sequel to Rootless Weeds (Nenashigusa kōhen) in 1769

Fûryû Shidôken den 風流志道軒伝 The tale of dashing Shidoken
(1763)

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- #hiragagennai #gennai -
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WKD - Sakazuki

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Sakazuki, small cups to drink Sake

さかずき【杯/盃/坏】
choko, ochoko ちょく【猪口】


CLICK for more photos


I have written extensively about

Tokkuri - Drinking Hot Sake with Daruma
徳利とだるま―焼物散歩


Sake and Shochu - Ricewine, Schnaps and Daruma
酒、焼酎と達磨 ...



My Photo Album about Sake and Daruma


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Here is a nice pair made of wood and laquer. It starts of as one figure, and develops into a set of two cups with a small tray, almost like the maryoshika dolls of Russia.



Both heads are made flat so they stand as a sake cup.



Nr. 15 to 17 in the Album.


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This piece is rather large, almost 25 cm.
I have written about a similar small one in the story about Takasago.
At first it looks like a small statue, then you take of the head and have the first sakazuki. Next comes O-Kame, off and used as a sakazuki for the wife.



Again, the heads are formed rather flat so the cups can stand.



Nr. 09 - 12 in the Album.

Read about
Meoto Daruma and Takasago - Daruma and a Happy Couple


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Some sakazuki from Kutani



There are more in my Album, Nr. 18 to 21.

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Tumbler with Daruma 達磨タンブラー


中国醸造


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choko cups with a flask


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SOME LINKS

The very small cups for ricewine are called sakazuki 杯.
Somewhat bigger versions are guinomi 食いのみ or o-choko.


. . . CLICK here for guinomi Photos !



In olden times flat vessles of earthware were called
hiraka ひらか【平瓮】


Books about Sake Vessels -
from www.e-yakimono.net, Robert Yellin


COMPLETE LISTING OF SERIAL SAKE STORIES
All Stories by Robert Yellin


... ... ... ...

Japanese Sake Containers - A bit on the KITSCH side.

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Japanese Military Sake Cups 1894-1945
This is the first book of its kind
regarding the up-and-coming hobby of collecting Japanese Military Sake Cups (guntai sakazuki). It consists of 144 pages of useful information and photos regarding the usage and history on Japanese Army & Navy sake cups used by the military for roughly 50 years. The book covers cups, sake bottles, sake trays and commemorative items. The cups photographed in the book are the result of the author's 20 years of collection WWII Japanese militaria with a focus on sake-related items.

The attraction of these cups is not only hand made, hand painted craftsmanship but their historical significance as well. Many cups will have the owner's regiment, name etc..on the cup which gives the collector the option of researching the cup to discover where the original owner was stationed during the war.

The Japanese military machine chose to revive several age-old samurai traditions including the use of hand-forged swords, long helmet straps tied in the samurai style, and the consumption of ceremonial sake before a battle.

The sake was consumed in a solumn ceremony, with no words spoken other than a reverent, singular "Kanpai" by the leader.

- other books by Dan King

The Last Zero Fighter
Firsthand Accounts from Japanese WWII Naval Pilots and Airmen

A Tomb Called Iwo Jima
Firsthand Accounts from Japanese Survivors

- source : Dan King

兵隊盃  / 従軍記念杯

- reference about these cups

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盃に 三つの名を飲む 今宵かな
sakazuki ni mitsu no na o nomu koyoi kana

with a sake cup
I drink to the three names
this fine evening


Matsuo Basho
Tr. Higginson

Where is the season word?—you ask? In the opening quatrain of
Li Po’s poem "Under the Moon, Drinking Alone":

Among the flowers one jug of wine:
drinking alone with no one familiar,
I offer my cup to the bright moon
my shadows and I a party of three.


Bashô, too, drinks alone, but has the companionship of "the three names": Li Po and his two shadows of the same name (one on the ground, one in the wine cup). Oseku points out that we should also note the puns in this hokku: Puns on "moon" (-zuki cup = tsuki moon) and "full" (mitsu three = mitsu to fill).5 Rather than provoking humor directly as a pun in English might, these implied words simply capitalize on the profusion of homonyms in Japanese to provide further clues to the poem’s hidden seasonal topic.

William Higginson, 2001
source : www.haijinx.com



la coupe de vin (la lune)
remplie de trois noms
pour boire ce soir


Tr. Daniel Py



On that night, there were three uninvited guests at Basho's home, all with the name of Shichirobei 七郎兵衛.
Basho had intended to drink alone in memory of Li Po, maybe, but the drunken visitors joined him.
This hokku has the cut marker KANA at the end of line 3.


. Li Po, Li Bo, Li Bai 李白, lived 701 – 762 .


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quote
Sakazuki ni / mitsu no na nomu / koyoi kana

With my sake cup
& the moon, I toast three friends —
this fine evening


Basho wrote this playful haiku in 1685, when three friends came to visit him late at night. He had in mind lines from Li Po’s poem:

With blossoms, a bottle of wine
Drinking all alone, no one else.
Raising the cup, we greet the bright moon
With my shadow we become three.


Basho substituted Li Po’s three friend, the wine cup, his shadow and the moon for three actual friends.

The influence of Chinese literature on Basho
Bill Wyatt
source : www.poetrymagazines.org.u


According to Wyatt, Basho's haiku was written in 1685, a time period that "the haikai world was swept by the "Chinese style" (kanshibun-cho)" .
(For further info. read the section titled "Parody and the Chinese Style" (Shirane,Haruo, Traces of Dreams: Landscape, Cultural Memory, and the Poetry of Basho, pp 60-7)

Basho was well-versed in Chinese classics. Read in the emotional context of his poem ("this fine evening"), "three friends" could be also read as an allusion to a popular Chinese idiom, three is a crowd, contrasted with Li Po's lonely lifeworld (himself, his shadow, and the moon).

Chen-ou Liu



Ricewine and sakazuki cups haiku by
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .

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quote
Reviving Japanese Haikai Through Chinese Classics:
Yosa Buson and the Basho Revival


Li Po's poem Drinking Alone by Moonlight, the sixth in The Three Hundred Tang Poems
(月下獨酌, pinyin: Yuè Xià Dú Zhuó), translated by Arthur Waley, 1919, reads:

花間一壺酒。 A pot of wine, under the flowering trees;
獨酌無相親。 I drink alone, for no friend is near
舉杯邀明月。 raising my cup I beckon the bright moon,
對影成三人。 for her, together with my shadow, will make three people

"Three people" (or "a party of three;" Chinese: 三人) refers to the moon in the sky (, which connotates "Heaven"), Li Po's shadow on the ground ("Earth"),and Li Po himself ("Humanity").

Nankaku
was a student of one of the most important Confucian scholars, Ogyu Sorai (1666--1728), who emphasized an unmediated understanding of Chinese classics, and whose thoughts had highly influenced the leading painters of nanga (also known as bunjinga, which literally means literati painting). Nanga was a school of Japanese painting modeled on the Chinese Southern school of painting, to which Buson belonged. Nankaku specialized in Chinese classics, and one of his greatest achievements was the Toshisen, a Japanese edition of one the most influential Chinese verse anthologies, Tang Selected Poems. The Toshisen had long served as one of the foundational texts for the bunjin movement.

The concept of “wenren” is highly related to that of “renwen” (wenren written inversely in Chinese). It can be found in the Yi Jing, also known as the Book of Changes, which is one of the oldest of Chinese classics. 36 Renwen can roughly be translated as meaning the "arts of humanity," one component of the three-fold Chinese universe: heaven, earth, and humanity. It "embodies all that is of the highest value to the society, and interacts with the other two: the spiritual and philosophical (tianwen) and the environmental and ecological (diwen). A person cultivated in renwen was originally called wenren.

source : Chen-ou Liu

Phenomenologically speaking, "three people" constitutes Li Po's lifeworld (German Lebenswelt understood in the Husserlian sense of the word).
Basho's allusion emotionally and tonally changes the connotative meaning of "three people."
Chen-ou Liu



. Chinese background of Japanese kigo .


koyoi no tsuki 今宵の月 the moon tonight
can be seen as a kigo for autum.

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. Sake 酒 for rituals and festivals .

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